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.TH "EMERGE" "1" "Jun 2019" "Portage VERSION" "Portage"
.SH "NAME"
emerge \- Command\-line interface to the Portage system
.SH "SYNOPSIS"
.TP
.BR emerge
[\fIoptions\fR] [\fIaction\fR] [\fIebuild\fR | \fItbz2file\fR | \fIfile\fR |
\fI@set\fR | \fIatom\fR] ...
.TP
.BR emerge
\fB\-\-sync\fR [\fIrepo\fR | \fIalias\fR] ...
.TP
.BR emerge
\fB\-\-info\fR [\fIatom\fR]
.TP
.BR emerge
\fB\-\-search\fR \fIsomestring\fR
.TP
.BR emerge
\fB\-\-help\fR | \fB\-\-version\fR
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
\fBemerge\fR is the definitive command\-line interface to the Portage
system.  It is primarily used for installing packages, and \fBemerge\fR
can automatically handle any dependencies that the desired package has.
\fBemerge\fR can also update the \fBebuild repository\fR, making new and
updated packages available.  \fBemerge\fR gracefully handles updating
installed packages to newer releases as well.  It handles both source
and binary packages, and it can be used to create binary packages for
distribution.
.SH "EBUILDS, TBZ2S, SETS AND ATOMS"
\fBemerge\fR primarily installs packages.  You can specify
packages to install in five possible ways: an \fIatom\fR,
a \fIset\fR, an installed \fIfile\fR, an \fIebuild\fR, or
a \fItbz2file\fR.
.LP
.TP
.BR ebuild
An \fIebuild\fR must be, at a minimum, a valid Portage
package directory name without a version or category, such as
\fBportage\fR or \fBpython\fR.
Both categories and version numbers may be used in addition, such
as \fBsys\-apps/portage\fR or \fB=python\-2.2.1\-r2\fR.
\fBemerge\fR
ignores a trailing slash so that filename completion can be used.
The \fIebuild\fR may also be an actual filename, such as
\fB/var/db/repos/gentoo/app\-admin/python/python\-2.2.1\-r2.ebuild\fR.
\fBWARNING:\fR The implementation of \fBemerge /path/to/ebuild\fR is broken and
so this syntax shouldn't be used.
.TP
.BR tbz2file
A \fItbz2file\fR must be a valid .tbz2 created with \fBebuild
<package>\-<version>.ebuild package\fR or \fBemerge \-\-buildpkg
[category/]<package>\fR or \fBquickpkg [category/]<package>\fR.
.TP
.BR file
A \fIfile\fR must be a file or directory that has been installed by one or
more packages. If an absolute path is not used, then it must begin with
either "./" or "../". For directories that are owned by multiple packages, all
owning packages will be selected. See the portageq(1) owners command if you
would like to query the owners of one or more files or directories.
.TP
.BR set
A \fIset\fR is a convenient shorthand for a large group of
packages. Six sets are currently always available: \fBselected-packages\fR,
\fBselected-sets\fR, \fBselected\fR, \fBsystem\fR, \fBprofile\fR, and \fBworld\fR.
\fBselected-packages\fR contains the user-selected "world" packages that
are listed in \fB/var/lib/portage/world\fR, while \fBselected-sets\fR
contains the nested sets that may be listed in \fB/var/lib/portage/world_sets\fR.
\fBsystem\fR and \fBprofile\fR both refer to sets of packages deemed
necessary for your system to run properly (the differences between these
two sets are documented in \fBportage\fR(5)).
\fBselected\fR encompasses both the \fBselected-packages\fR
and \fBselected-sets\fR sets, while \fBworld\fR encompasses the \fBselected\fR,
\fBsystem\fR and \fBprofile\fR sets. (See \fBFILES\fR below for more
information.) Other sets can exist depending
on the current configuration. The default set configuration is located
in the \fB/usr/share/portage/config/sets\fR directory.
User sets may be created by placing files in the \fB/etc/portage/sets/\fR
directory (see \fBportage\fR(5)). Note that a \fIset\fR
is generally used in conjunction with \fB\-\-update\fR. When used as
arguments to \fBemerge\fR sets have to be prefixed with \fB@\fR to be
recognized. Use the \fB\-\-list\-sets\fR action to display a list of
available package sets.
.TP
.BR atom
An \fIatom\fR describes bounds on a package that you wish to install.
\fISee ebuild(5) for the details on atom syntax.\fR  For example,
\fB>=dev\-lang/python\-2.2.1\-r2\fR matches the latest available version of
Python greater than or equal to 2.2.1\-r2.  Similarly,
\fB<dev\-lang/python\-2.0\fR matches the latest available version of Python
before 2.0.  Note that in many shells you will need to escape characters such
as '<' and '='; use single\- or double\-quotes around the \fIatom\fR
to get around escaping problems. You may also constrain an atom to match a
specific \fBSLOT\fR by appending a colon and a \fBSLOT\fR. Example:
\fBx11\-libs/qt:3\fR.
.SH "ACTIONS"
.TP
.BR "No action"
If no action is specified, the action is to merge in the specified
packages, satisfying any dependencies that they may have.  The
arguments can be \fIatoms\fR, \fIsets\fR, installed \fIfiles\fR,
\fIebuilds\fR, or \fItbz2s\fR.
\fBNote that you need to use the \-\-usepkg
option if you want to install a tbz2\fR.  The packages are added
to the \fBworld\fR file at the end, so that they are considered for
later updating.
.TP
.BR \-\-check\-news
Scan all repositories for relevant unread GLEP 42 news items, and display
how many are found. See
\fIhttps://www.gentoo.org/glep/glep-0042.html\fR.
.TP
.BR \-\-clean
Cleans up the system by examining the installed packages and removing older
packages.  This is accomplished by looking at each installed package and
separating the installed versions by \fBslot\fR.  Clean will \fBremove all but
the most recently installed version in each \fbslot\fR.  Clean should not
remove unslotted packages. Note: Most recently installed means most
\fBrecent\fR, not highest version.
.TP
.BR \-\-config
Run package specific actions needed to be executed after the emerge process
has completed.  This usually entails configuration file setup or other similar
setups that the user may wish to run.
.TP
.BR \-\-depclean ", " \-c
Cleans the system by removing packages that are not associated
with explicitly merged packages. Depclean works by creating the
full dependency tree from the @world set,
then comparing it to installed packages. Packages installed, but
not part of the dependency tree, will be uninstalled by depclean.
See \fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR for behavior with respect to build time dependencies
that are not strictly required. Packages that are part of the world set will
always be kept. They can be manually added to this set with \fIemerge
\-\-noreplace <atom>\fR. As a safety measure, depclean will not remove any
packages unless *all* required dependencies have been resolved. As a
consequence, it is often necessary to run \fIemerge \-\-update \-\-newuse
\-\-deep @world\fR prior to depclean. Also note that
depclean may break link level dependencies, especially when the
\fB\-\-depclean\-lib\-check\fR option is disabled. Thus, it is
recommended to use a tool such as \fBrevdep-rebuild\fR(1)
in order to detect such breakage.

\fBWARNING:\fR
Inexperienced users are advised to use \fB\-\-pretend\fR or \fB\-\-ask\fR
with this option in order to see a preview of which packages
will be uninstalled. Always study the list of packages
to be cleaned for any obvious mistakes. Note that packages listed in
package.provided (see \fBportage\fR(5)) may be removed by
depclean, even if they are part of the world set.

Depclean serves as a dependency aware
version of \fB\-\-unmerge\fR. When given one or more atoms, it will
unmerge matched packages that have no reverse dependencies. Use
\fB\-\-depclean\fR together with \fB\-\-verbose\fR to show reverse
dependencies.
.TP
.BR "\-\-deselect [ y | n ]"
Remove atoms and/or sets from the world file. This action is implied
by uninstall actions, including \fB-\-depclean\fR,
\fB-\-prune\fR and \fB-\-unmerge\fR. Use \fB-\-deselect=n\fR
in order to prevent uninstall actions from removing
atoms from the world file.
.TP
.BR \-\-help ", " \-h
Displays help information for emerge.  Adding one of the additional
arguments listed above will give you more specific help information
on that subject.  The internal \fBemerge\fR help documentation is
updated more frequently than this man page; check it out if you
are having problems that this man page does not help resolve.
.TP
.BR \-\-info
Produces a list of information to include in bug reports which aids the
developers when fixing the reported problem.  \fBPlease include this
information when submitting a bug report.\fR  Expanded output can be obtained
with the \fI\-\-verbose\fR option.
.TP
.BR \-\-list\-sets
Displays a list of available package sets.
.TP
.BR \-\-metadata
Transfers pregenerated metadata cache from ${repository_location}/metadata/md5\-cache/
to /var/cache/edb/dep/ as is normally done on the tail end of an rsync update using
\fBemerge \-\-sync\fR. This process populates the cache database that Portage uses
for pre-parsed lookups of package data. It does not populate cache for repositories
not distributing pregenerated metadata cache. In order to generate cache for these
repositories, use \fB\-\-regen\fR.
In versions of portage >=2.1.5 the \-\-metadata action is totally unnecessary
unless the user has enabled FEATURES="metadata-transfer" in \fBmake.conf\fR(5).
.TP
.BR \-\-prune ", " \-P
Removes all but the highest installed version of a package from your
system. Use \fB\-\-prune\fR together with \fB\-\-verbose\fR to show
reverse dependencies or with \fB\-\-nodeps\fR to ignore all dependencies.
\fBWARNING: This action can remove packages from your world file! Check
the emerge output of the next \-\-depclean run carefully! Use
\-\-depclean to avoid this issue.\fR
.TP
.BR \-\-regen
Causes portage to check and update the dependency cache of all ebuilds in the
repository.  The cache is used to speed up searches and the building of
dependency trees.  This command is not recommended for rsync users as rsync
updates the cache using server\-side caches.  If you do not know the
differences between a 'rsync user' and some other user, then you are a 'rsync
user' :).  Rsync users should simply run \fBemerge \-\-sync\fR to regenerate
the cache.  After a portage update, rsync users may find it convenient to run
\fBemerge \-\-metadata\fR to rebuild the cache as portage does at the end of
a sync operation. In order to specify parallel \fB\-\-regen\fR behavior, use
the \fB\-\-jobs\fR and \fB\-\-load\-average\fR options. If you would like to
generate and distribute cache for use by others, use \fBegencache\fR(1).
.TP
.BR \-\-resume ", " \-r
Resumes the most recent merge list that has been aborted due to an error.
This re\-uses the arguments and options that were given with the original
command that's being resumed, and the user may also provide
additional options when calling \fB\-\-resume\fR. It is an error to provide
atoms or sets as arguments to \fB\-\-resume\fR, since the arguments from the
resumed command are used instead.
Please note that this operation will only return an error on failure.  If there
is nothing for portage to do, then portage will exit with a message and a
success condition. A resume list will persist until it has been completed in
entirety or until another aborted merge list replaces it.  The resume history
is capable of storing two merge lists.  After one resume list completes, it is
possible to invoke \-\-resume once again in order to resume an older list.
The resume lists are stored in \fI/var/cache/edb/mtimedb\fR, and may be
explicitly discarded by running `emaint \-\-fix cleanresume` (see
\fBemaint\fR(1)).
.TP
.BR \-\-search ", " \-s
Searches for matches of the supplied string in the ebuild repository.
By default emerge uses a case-insensitive simple search, but you can
enable a regular expression search by prefixing the search string with %.
For example, \fBemerge \-\-search "%^kde"\fR searches for any package whose
name starts with "kde"; \fBemerge \-\-search "%gcc$"\fR searches for any
package that ends with "gcc"; \fBemerge \-\-search "office"\fR searches for
any package that contains the word "office".  If you want to include the
category into the search string, prepend an @: \fBemerge \-\-search
"%@^dev-java.*jdk"\fR. If you want to search the package descriptions as well,
use the \fB\-\-searchdesc\fR action.
.TP
.BR \-\-searchdesc ", " \-S
Matches the search string against the description field as well as
the package name.  \fBTake caution\fR as the descriptions are also
matched as regular expressions.
.TP
.BR \-\-sync
Updates repositories, for which auto\-sync, sync\-type and sync\-uri attributes are
set in repos.conf. A list of repos or aliases can be specified, in which case
they will be updated regardless of their auto\-sync attribute.  See
\fBportage\fR(5) for more information.
The \fBPORTAGE_SYNC_STALE\fR variable configures
warnings that are shown when emerge \-\-sync has not
been executed recently.

\fBWARNING:\fR
The emerge \-\-sync action will revert local changes (e.g. modifications or
additions of files) inside repositories synchronized using rsync.

\fBNOTE:\fR
The emerge \-\-sync command is a compatibility command.  Sync operations are
now performed using the new emaint sync module. This new emaint sync module
has greater functionality and flexibility.  Please refer to \fBemaint\fR(1) for
more information about sync operations.

\fBNOTE:\fR
The \fBemerge\-webrsync\fR program will download the entire
ebuild repository as a tarball, which is much faster than emerge
\-\-sync for first time syncs.

.TP
.BR \-\-unmerge ", " \-C
\fBWARNING: This action can remove important packages!\fR Removes
all matching packages following a counter governed by \fBCLEAN_DELAY\fR.
This does no checking of dependencies, so it may remove packages necessary
for the proper operation of your system.  Its arguments can be \fIatoms\fR
or \fIebuilds\fR. For a dependency aware version of \fB\-\-unmerge\fR, use
\fB\-\-depclean\fR or \fB\-\-prune\fR.  For a version with
\fBCLEAN_DELAY=0\fR, use \fB\-\-rage\-clean\fR.
.TP
.BR \-\-version ", " \-V
Displays the version number of \fBemerge\fR.
.SH "OPTIONS"
.TP
.BR \-\-accept\-properties=ACCEPT_PROPERTIES
This option temporarily overrides the \fBACCEPT_PROPERTIES\fR
variable. The \fBACCEPT_PROPERTIES\fR variable is incremental,
which means that the specified setting is appended to the
existing value from your configuration. The special \fB-*\fR
token can be used to discard the existing configuration
value and start fresh. See the \fBMASKED PACKAGES\fR section
and \fBmake.conf\fR(5) for more information about
ACCEPT_PROPERTIES. A typical usage example for this option
would be to use \fI\-\-accept\-properties=\-interactive\fR to
temporarily mask interactive packages. With default
configuration, this would result in an effective
\fBACCEPT_PROPERTIES\fR value of "* -interactive".
.TP
.BR \-\-accept\-restrict=ACCEPT_RESTRICT
This option temporarily overrides the \fBACCEPT_RESTRICT\fR
variable. The \fBACCEPT_RESTRICT\fR variable is incremental,
which means that the specified setting is appended to the
existing value from your configuration. The special \fB-*\fR
token can be used to discard the existing configuration
value and start fresh. See the \fBMASKED PACKAGES\fR section
and \fBmake.conf\fR(5) for more information about
ACCEPT_RESTRICT. A typical usage example for this option
would be to use \fI\-\-accept\-restrict=\-bindist\fR to
temporarily mask packages that are not binary
re\-distributable. With default
configuration, this would result in an effective
\fBACCEPT_RESTRICT\fR value of "* -bindist".
.TP
.BR "\-\-alert [ y | n ]" ", " \-A
Add a terminal bell character ('\\a') to all interactive prompts. This
is especially useful if dependency resolution is taking a long time, and
you want emerge to alert you when it is finished. If you use
\fBemerge -auAD world\fR, emerge will courteously point out when it has
finished calculating the graph.

\fB--alert\fR may be 'y' or 'n'. 'true' and 'false' mean the same thing.
Using \fB--alert\fR without an option is the same as using it with 'y'.
Try it with 'emerge -aA portage'.

If your terminal emulator is set up to make '\\a' into a window manager
urgency hint, move your cursor to a different window to get the effect.
.TP
.BR \-\-alphabetical
When displaying USE and other flag output, combines the enabled and
disabled lists into one list and sorts the whole list alphabetically.
.TP
.BR "\-\-ask [ y | n ]" ", " \-a
Before performing the action, display what will take place (server info for
\fB\-\-sync\fR, \fB\-\-pretend\fR output for merge, and so forth), then ask
whether to proceed with the action or abort.  Using \fB\-\-ask\fR is more
efficient than using \fB\-\-pretend\fR and then executing the same command
without \fB\-\-pretend\fR, as dependencies will only need to be calculated
once. \fBWARNING: If the "Enter" key is pressed at the prompt (with no other
input), it is interpreted as acceptance of the first choice.  Note that the
input
buffer is not cleared prior to the prompt, so an accidental press of the
"Enter" key at any time prior to the prompt will be interpreted as a choice!
Use the \-\-ask\-enter\-invalid option if you want a single "Enter" key
press to be interpreted as invalid input.\fR
.TP
.BR \-\-ask\-enter\-invalid
When used together with the \fB\-\-ask\fR option,
interpret a single "Enter" key press as
invalid input. This helps prevent accidental
acceptance of the first choice. This option is
intended to be set in the \fBmake.conf\fR(5)
\fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR variable.
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask [ y | n ]"
Automatically unmask packages and generate package.use
settings as necessary to satisfy dependencies. This
option is enabled by default. If any configuration
changes are required, then they will be displayed
after the merge list and emerge will immediately
abort. If the displayed configuration changes are
satisfactory, you should copy and paste them into
the specified configuration file(s), or enable the
\fB\-\-autounmask\-write\fR option. The
\fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR variable may be used to
disable this option by default in \fBmake.conf\fR(5).
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask\-backtrack < y | n >"
Allow backtracking after autounmask has detected that
configuration changes are necessary. This option is not
recommended, since it can cause a large amount of time to
be wasted by backtracking calculations, even though there
is no guarantee that it will produce a solution. This
option is disabled by default.
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask\-continue [ y | n ]"
Automatically apply autounmask changes to configuration
files, and continue to execute the specified command. If
the dependency calculation is not entirely successful, then
emerge will simply abort without modifying any configuration
files. This option implies \fB\-\-autounmask\-backtrack=y\fR.
\fBWARNING:\fR
This option is intended to be used only with great caution,
since it is possible for it to make nonsensical configuration
changes which may lead to system breakage. Therefore, it is
advisable to use \fB\-\-ask\fR together with this option.
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask\-only [ y | n ]"
Instead of doing any package building, just unmask
packages and generate package.use settings as necessary
to satisfy dependencies. This option is disabled by
default.
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask\-unrestricted\-atoms [ y | n ]"
If \-\-autounmask is enabled, keyword and mask changes
using the \'=\' operator will be written. With this
option, \'>=\' operators will be used whenever possible.
USE and license changes always use the latter behavior.
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask\-keep\-keywords [ y | n ]"
If \-\-autounmask is enabled, no package.accept_keywords changes will
be created. This leads to unsatisfied dependencies if any keyword
changes are required. This option does not imply \-\-autounmask\-keep\-masks,
so \-\-autounmask is still allowed to create package.unmask changes unless
the \-\-autounmask\-keep\-masks is also specified.
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask\-keep\-masks [ y | n ]"
If \-\-autounmask is enabled, no package.unmask or ** keyword changes
will be created. This leads to unsatisfied dependencies if
no other solution exists.
.TP
.BR "\-\-autounmask\-write [ y | n ]"
If \-\-autounmask is enabled, changes are written
to config files, respecting \fBCONFIG_PROTECT\fR and \fB\-\-ask\fR.
If the corresponding package.* is a file, the changes are appended to
it, if it is a directory, changes are written to the lexicographically
last file. This way it is always ensured that the new changes take
precedence over existing changes. This option is automatically enabled with
\-\-ask.
.TP
.BR \-\-backtrack=COUNT
Specifies an integer number of times to backtrack if
dependency calculation fails due to a conflict or an
unsatisfied dependency (default: \'10\').
.TP
.BR "\-\-binpkg\-changed\-deps [ y | n ]"
Tells emerge to ignore binary packages for which the corresponding
ebuild dependencies have changed since the packages were built.
In order to help avoid issues with resolving inconsistent dependencies,
this option is automatically enabled unless the \fB\-\-usepkgonly\fR
option is enabled. Behavior with respect to changed build\-time
dependencies is controlled by the \fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR option.
.TP
.BR "\-\-binpkg\-respect\-use [ y | n ]"
Tells emerge to ignore binary packages if their USE flags
don't match the current configuration. In order to help avoid issues
with resolving inconsistent USE flag settings, this option is
automatically enabled unless the \fB\-\-usepkgonly\fR option
is enabled.
.TP
.BR "\-\-buildpkg [ y | n ]" ", " \-b
Tells emerge to build binary packages for all ebuilds processed in
addition to actually merging the packages.  Useful for maintainers
or if you administrate multiple Gentoo Linux systems (build once,
emerge tbz2s everywhere) as well as disaster recovery. The package
will be created in the \fBPKGDIR\fR directory (see \fBmake.conf\fR(5)).
An alternative for already\-merged
packages is to use \fBquickpkg\fR(1) which creates a tbz2 from the
live filesystem.
.TP
.BR \-\-buildpkg\-exclude " ATOMS"
A space separated list of package atoms for which
no binary packages should be built. This option overrides all
possible ways to enable building of binary packages except for
the downgrade\-backup and unmerge\-backup \fBFEATURES\fR settings (see
\fBmake.conf\fR(5) for more information about \fBFEATURES\fR settings).
.TP
.BR \-\-buildpkgonly ", " \-B
Creates binary packages for all ebuilds processed without actually
merging the packages.  This comes with the caveat that all build-time
dependencies must already be emerged on the system.
.TP
.BR "\-\-changed\-deps [ y | n ]"
Tells emerge to replace installed packages for which the corresponding
ebuild dependencies have changed since the packages were built. This
option also implies the \fB\-\-selective\fR option. Behavior with
respect to changed build\-time dependencies is controlled by the
\fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR option.
.TP
.BR "\-\-changed\-deps\-report [ y | n ]"
Tells emerge to report ebuilds for which the ebuild dependencies have
changed since the installed instance was built. Behavior with respect to
changed build\-time dependencies is controlled by the
\fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR option.
.TP
.BR "\-\-changed\-slot [ y | n ]"
Tells emerge to replace installed packages for which the corresponding
ebuild SLOT metadata has changed since the packages were built. This
option also implies the \fB\-\-selective\fR option. This may also result
in rebuilds for any installed packages that have slot/sub\-slot :=
operator dependencies that are sensitive to the relevant SLOT metadata.
.TP
.BR \-\-changed\-use ", " \-U
Tells emerge to include installed packages where USE flags have
changed since installation. This option also implies the
\fB\-\-selective\fR option. Unlike \fB\-\-newuse\fR, the
\fB\-\-changed\-use\fR option does not trigger reinstallation when
flags that the user has not enabled are added or removed.

NOTE: This option ignores the state of the "test" USE flag, since that flag
has a special binding to FEATURES="test" (see \fBmake.conf\fR(5) for more
information about \fBFEATURES\fR settings).
.TP
.BR \-\-changelog ", " \-l
Use this in conjunction with the \fB\-\-pretend\fR option.  This will
show the ChangeLog entries for all the packages that will be upgraded.
This option is deprecated because ChangeLog files are no longer
distributed with Gentoo's ebuild repository.
.TP
.BR "\-\-color < y | n >"
Enable or disable color output.  This option will override \fINOCOLOR\fR
(see \fBmake.conf\fR(5)) and may also be used to force color output when stdout
is not a tty (by default, color is disabled unless stdout is a tty).
.TP
.BR \-\-columns
Used alongside \fB\-\-pretend\fR to cause the package name, new version,
and old version to be displayed in an aligned format for easy cut\-n\-paste.
.TP
.BR "\-\-complete\-graph [ y | n ]"
This causes \fBemerge\fR to consider the deep dependencies of all
packages from the world set. With this option enabled,
\fBemerge\fR will bail out if it determines that the given operation will
break any dependencies of the packages that have been added to the
graph. Like the \fB\-\-deep\fR option, the \fB\-\-complete\-graph\fR
option will significantly increase the time taken for dependency
calculations. Note that, unlike the \fB\-\-deep\fR option, the
\fB\-\-complete\-graph\fR option does not cause any more packages to
be updated than would have otherwise been updated with the option disabled.
Using \fB\-\-with\-bdeps=y\fR together with \fB\-\-complete\-graph\fR makes
the graph as complete as possible.
.TP
.BR "\-\-complete\-graph\-if\-new\-use < y | n >"
Trigger the \fB\-\-complete\-graph\fR behavior if USE or IUSE will
change for an installed package. This option is enabled by default.
.TP
.BR "\-\-complete\-graph\-if\-new\-ver < y | n >"
Trigger the \fB\-\-complete\-graph\fR behavior if an installed package
version will change (upgrade or downgrade). This option is enabled by default.
.TP
.BR \-\-config\-root=DIR
Set the \fBPORTAGE_CONFIGROOT\fR environment variable.
.TP
.BR \-\-debug ", " \-d
Tells emerge to run the emerge command in \fB\-\-debug\fR mode.  In this
mode the bash build environment will run with the \-x option, causing
it to output verbose debugging information to stdout.  This also enables
a plethora of other output (mostly dependency resolution messages).
.TP
.BR "\-\-deep [DEPTH]" ", " \-D
This flag forces
\fBemerge\fR to consider the entire dependency tree of packages,
instead of checking only the immediate dependencies of the packages.
As an example, this catches updates in libraries that are not directly
listed in the dependencies of a package.  Also see \fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR for
behavior with respect to build time dependencies that are not strictly
required.
.TP
.BR "\-\-depclean\-lib\-check [ y | n ]"
Account for library link-level dependencies during
\fB\-\-depclean\fR and \fB\-\-prune\fR actions.
This option is enabled by default. If FEATURES="preserve\-libs" is
enabled in \fBmake.conf\fR(5), and preserve\-libs is not restricted
for any of the packages selected for removal, then this option is
ignored because any libraries that have consumers will simply be
preserved.
.TP
.BR \-\-digest
Prevent corruption from being noticed. The `repoman manifest` command is the
preferred way to generate manifests and it is capable of doing an entire
repository or category at once (see \fBrepoman\fR(1)).
.TP
.BR "\-\-dynamic\-deps < y | n >"
In dependency calculations, substitute the dependencies of installed
packages with the dependencies of corresponding unbuilt ebuilds from
source repositories. This causes the effective dependencies of
installed packages to vary dynamically when source ebuild dependencies
are modified. This option is enabled by default.

\fBWARNING:\fR
If you want to disable \-\-dynamic\-deps, then it may be necessary to
first run \fBfixpackages\fR(1) in order to get the best results. The
\fBfixpackages\fR(1) command performs two different operations that can
also be performed separately by the `emaint \-\-fix moveinst` and
`emaint \-\-fix movebin` commands (see \fBemaint\fR(1)).
.TP
.BR \-\-emptytree ", " \-e
Reinstalls target atoms and their entire deep
dependency tree, as though no packages are currently
installed. You should run this with \fB\-\-pretend\fR
first to make sure the result is what you expect.
.TP
.BR "\-\-exclude " ATOMS
A space separated list of package names or slot atoms.
Emerge won't install any ebuild or binary package that
matches any of the given package atoms.
.TP
.BR "\-\-fail\-clean [ y | n ]"
Clean up temporary files after a build failure. This is
particularly useful if you have \fBPORTAGE_TMPDIR\fR on
tmpfs. If this option is enabled, you probably also want
to enable \fBPORTAGE_LOGDIR\fR (see \fBmake.conf\fR(5)) in
order to save the build log.
.TP
.BR \-\-fetchonly ", " \-f
Instead of doing any package building, just perform fetches for all
packages (fetch things from SRC_URI based upon USE setting).
.TP
.BR \-\-fetch\-all\-uri ", " \-F
Instead of doing any package building, just perform fetches for all
packages (fetch everything in SRC_URI regardless of USE setting).
.TP
.BR "\-\-fuzzy\-search [ y | n ]"
Enable or disable fuzzy search for search actions. When fuzzy search
is enabled, a result is returned if it is sufficiently similar to the
search string, without requiring an exact match. This option is enabled
by default. Fuzzy search does not support regular expressions, therefore
it is automatically disabled for regular expression searches. Fuzzy
search is slightly slower than non\-fuzzy search.
.TP
.BR "\-\-getbinpkg [ y | n ]" ", " \-g
Using the server and location defined in \fIPORTAGE_BINHOST\fR (see
\fBmake.conf\fR(5)), portage will download the information from each binary
package found and it will use that information to help build the dependency
list.  This option implies \fB\-k\fR.  (Use \fB\-gK\fR for binary\-only
merging.)
.TP
.BR "\-\-getbinpkgonly [ y | n ]" ", " \-G
This option is identical to \fB\-g\fR, as above, except binaries from the
remote server are preferred over local packages if they are not identical.
.TP
.BR \-\-ignore-default-opts
Causes \fIEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR (see \fBmake.conf\fR(5)) to be ignored.
.TP
.BR "\-\-ignore\-built\-slot\-operator\-deps < y | n >"
Ignore the slot/sub\-slot := operator parts of dependencies that have
been recorded when packages where built. This option is intended
only for debugging purposes, and it only affects built packages
that specify slot/sub\-slot := operator dependencies which are
supported beginning with \fBEAPI 5\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-ignore\-soname\-deps < y | n >"
Ignore the soname dependencies of binary and installed packages. This
option is enabled by default, since soname dependencies are relatively
new, and the required metadata is not guaranteed to exist for binary and
installed packages built with older versions of portage. Also, soname
dependencies will be automatically ignored for dependency calculations
that can pull unbuilt ebuilds into the dependency graph, since unbuilt
ebuilds do not have any soname dependency metadata, making it impossible
to determine whether an unresolved soname dependency can be satisfied.
Therefore, \fB\-\-usepkgonly\fR (or \fB\-\-getbinpkgonly\fR) must be
used in order to enable soname depedency resolution when installing
packages.
.TP
.BR "\-\-ignore\-world [ y | n ]"
Ignore the @world package set and its dependencies. This may be useful
if there is a desire to perform an action even though it might break
the dependencies of some installed packages (it might also remove
installed packages in order to solve blockers). This also alters the
behavior of \fB\-\-complete\-graph\fR options so that only deep
dependencies of packages given as arguments are included in the
dependency graph. This option may be useful as an alternative to
\fB\-\-nodeps\fR in cases where it is desirable to account for
dependencies of packages given as arguments.

\fBWARNING:\fR
This option is intended to be used only with great caution, since it is
possible for it to make nonsensical changes which may lead to system
breakage. Therefore, it is advisable to use \fB\-\-ask\fR together with
this option.
.TP
.BR \-j\ [JOBS] ", "  \-\-jobs[=JOBS]
Specifies the number of packages to build simultaneously. If this option is
given without an argument, emerge will not limit the number of jobs that can
run simultaneously. Also see the related \fB\-\-load\-average\fR option.
Similarly to the \-\-quiet\-build option, the \-\-jobs option causes all
build output to be redirected to logs.
Note that interactive packages currently force a setting
of \fI\-\-jobs=1\fR. This issue can be temporarily avoided
by specifying \fI\-\-accept\-properties=\-interactive\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-keep\-going [ y | n ]"
Continue as much as possible after an error. When an error occurs,
dependencies are recalculated for remaining packages and any with
unsatisfied dependencies are automatically dropped. Also see
the related \fB\-\-skipfirst\fR option.
.TP
.BR "\-\-load\-average [LOAD]"
Specifies that no new builds should be started if there are other builds
running and the load average is at least LOAD (a floating-point number).
With no argument, removes a previous load limit.
This option is recommended for use in combination with \fB\-\-jobs\fR in
order to avoid excess load. See \fBmake\fR(1) for information about
analogous options that should be configured via \fBMAKEOPTS\fR in
\fBmake.conf\fR(5).
.TP
.BR "\-\-misspell\-suggestions < y | n >"
Enable or disable misspell suggestions. By default, emerge will show
a list of packages with similar names when a package doesn't exist.
The \fIEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR variable may be used to disable this
option by default.
.TP
.BR \-\-newrepo
Tells emerge to recompile a package if it is now being pulled from a
different repository. This option also implies the
\fB\-\-selective\fR option.
.TP
.BR \-\-newuse ", " \-N
Tells emerge to include installed packages where USE
flags have changed since compilation. This option
also implies the \fB\-\-selective\fR option.
USE flag changes include:

A USE flag was added to a package.
A USE flag was removed from a package.
A USE flag was turned on for a package.
A USE flag was turned off for a package.

USE flags may be toggled by your profile as well as your USE and package.use
settings. If you would like to skip rebuilds for which disabled flags have
been added to or removed from IUSE, see the related
\fB\-\-changed\-use\fR option. If you would like to skip rebuilds for
specific packages, see the \fB\-\-exclude\fR option.

NOTE: This option ignores the state of the "test" USE flag, since that flag
has a special binding to FEATURES="test" (see \fBmake.conf\fR(5) for more
information about \fBFEATURES\fR settings).
.TP
.BR \-\-noconfmem
Causes portage to disregard merge records indicating that a config file
inside of a \fBCONFIG_PROTECT\fR directory has been merged already.  Portage
will normally merge those files only once to prevent the user from
dealing with the same config multiple times.  This flag will cause the
file to always be merged.
.TP
.BR \-\-nodeps ", " \-O
Merges specified packages without merging any dependencies.  Note that
the build may fail if the dependencies aren't satisfied.
.TP
.BR \-\-noreplace ", " \-n
Skips the packages specified on the command\-line that have already
been installed.  Without this option, any package atoms or package sets
you specify on the command\-line \fBwill\fR cause Portage to remerge
the package, even if it is already installed.  Note that Portage will
not remerge dependencies by default. This option can be used to update the
world file without rebuilding the packages.
.TP
.BR \-\-nospinner
Disables the spinner for the session.  The spinner is active when the
terminal device is determined to be a TTY.  This flag disables it regardless.
.TP
.BR "\-\-usepkg\-exclude " ATOMS
A space separated list of package names or slot atoms. Emerge will ignore
matching binary packages.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuild\-exclude " ATOMS
A space separated list of package names or slot atoms. Emerge will not rebuild
matching packages due to \fB\-\-rebuild\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuild\-ignore " ATOMS
A space separated list of package names or slot atoms. Emerge will not rebuild
packages that depend on matching packages due to \fB\-\-rebuild\fR.
.TP
.BR \-\-oneshot ", " \-1
Emerge as normal, but do not add the packages to the world file
for later updating.

\fBWARNING:\fR This option should only be used for packages that are
reachable from the @world package set (those that would not be removed
by \fB\-\-depclean\fR), since dependencies of unreachable packages are
allowed to be broken when satisfying dependencies of other packages.
Broken dependencies of this sort will invalidate assumptions that make
it possible for \fB\-\-deep\fR to be disabled by default.
.TP
.BR \-\-onlydeps ", " \-o
Only merge (or pretend to merge) the dependencies of the packages
specified, not the packages themselves.
.TP
.BR "\-\-onlydeps\-with\-rdeps < y | n >"
Include run time dependencies when \fB\-\-onlydeps\fR is specified.
When this is disabled only build time dependencies are included. This
option is enabled by default.
.TP
.BR "\-\-package\-moves [ y | n ]"
Perform package moves when necessary. This option is enabled
by default. Package moves are typically applied immediately
after a \fB\-\-sync\fR action. They are applied in an
incremental fashion, using only the subset of the history of
package moves which have been added or modified since the
previous application of package moves.

\fBWARNING:\fR This option
should remain enabled under normal circumstances.
Do not disable it unless you know what you are
doing.

\fBNOTE:\fR The \fBfixpackages\fR(1) command can be used to
exhaustively apply the entire history of package moves,
regardless of whether or not any of the package moves have
been previously applied.
.TP
.BR \-\-pkg\-format
Specify which binary package format will be created as target.
Possible choices now are tar and rpm or their combinations.
.TP
.BR \-\-prefix=DIR
Set the \fBEPREFIX\fR environment variable.
.TP
.BR \-\-pretend ", " \-p
Instead of actually performing the merge, simply display what *would*
have been installed if \fB\-\-pretend\fR weren't used.  Using \fB\-\-pretend\fR
is strongly recommended before installing an unfamiliar package.  In
the printout:

.TS
lI l.
N	new (not yet installed)
S	new SLOT installation (side-by-side versions)
U	updating (to another version)
D	downgrading (best version seems lower)
r	reinstall (forced for some reason, possibly due to slot or sub\-slot)
R	replacing (remerging same version)
F	fetch restricted (must be manually downloaded)
f	fetch restricted (already downloaded)
I	interactive (requires user input)
B	blocked by another package (unresolved conflict)
b	blocked by another package (automatically resolved conflict)
.TE
.TP
.BR "\-\-quiet [ y | n ]" ", " \-q
Results may vary, but the general outcome is a reduced or condensed
output from portage's displays.
.TP
.BR "\-\-quiet\-build [ y | n ]"
Redirect all build output to logs alone, and do not display it on
stdout. If a build failure occurs for a single package, the build
log will be automatically displayed on stdout (unless the
\fI\-\-quiet\-fail\fR option is enabled). If there are multiple
build failures (due to options like \-\-keep\-going or \-\-jobs),
then the content of the log files will not be displayed, and instead
the paths of the log files will be displayed together with the
corresponding die messages.
Note that interactive packages currently force all build output to
be displayed on stdout. This issue can be temporarily avoided
by specifying \fI\-\-accept\-properties=\-interactive\fR.
Further, note that disabling \fI\-\-quiet\-build\fR has no effect if
\fI\-\-jobs\fR is set to anything higher than 1.
.TP
.BR "\-\-quiet\-fail [ y | n ]"
Suppresses display of the build log on stdout when build output is hidden
due to options such as \fI\-\-jobs\fR, \fI\-\-quiet\fR, or
\fI\-\-quiet\-build\fR. Only the die message and the path of the build log
will be displayed on stdout.
.TP
.BR "\-\-quiet\-repo\-display"
In the package merge list display, suppress ::repository output, and
instead use numbers to indicate which repositories package come from.
.TP
.BR \-\-quiet\-unmerge\-warn
Disable the warning message that's shown prior to
\fB\-\-unmerge\fR actions. This option is intended
to be set in the \fBmake.conf\fR(5)
\fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR variable.
.TP
.BR \-\-rage\-clean
\fBWARNING: This action can remove important packages!\fR
\fB\-\-rage\-clean\fR does \fB\-\-unmerge\fR with \fBCLEAN_DELAY=0\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-read\-news [ y | n ]"
Offer to read news via eselect if there are unread news. This option
has no effect unless \fB\-\-ask\fR is enabled.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuild\-if\-new\-slot [ y | n ]"
Automatically rebuild or reinstall packages when slot/sub\-slot :=
operator dependencies can be satisfied by a newer slot, so that
older packages slots will become eligible for removal by the
\-\-depclean action as soon as possible. This option only
affects packages that specify slot/sub\-slot := dependencies
which are supported beginning with \fBEAPI 5\fR.
Since this option requires
checking of reverse dependencies, it enables \-\-complete\-graph
mode whenever a new slot is installed. This option is enabled by
default.

NOTE: If you want to skip all rebuilds involving slot\-operator
dependecies (including those that involve sub\-slot changes alone),
then \fI\-\-ignore\-built\-slot\-operator\-deps=y\fR is the option
that you are looking for, since \fI\-\-rebuild\-if\-new\-slot\fR
does not affect rebuilds triggered by sub\-slot changes alone.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuild\-if\-new\-rev [ y | n ]"
Rebuild packages when build\-time dependencies are built from source, if the
dependency is not already installed with the same version and revision.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuild\-if\-new\-ver [ y | n ]"
Rebuild packages when build\-time dependencies are built from source, if the
dependency is not already installed with the same version. Revision numbers
are ignored.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuild\-if\-unbuilt [ y | n ]"
Rebuild packages when build\-time dependencies are built from source.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuilt\-binaries [ y | n ]"
Replace installed packages with binary packages that have
been rebuilt. Rebuilds are detected by comparison of
BUILD_TIME package metadata. This option is enabled
automatically when using binary packages
(\fB\-\-usepkgonly\fR or \fB\-\-getbinpkgonly\fR) together with
\fB\-\-update\fR and \fB\-\-deep\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-rebuilt\-binaries\-timestamp=TIMESTAMP"
This option modifies emerge's behaviour only if
\fB\-\-rebuilt\-binaries\fR is given. Only binaries that
have a BUILD_TIME that is larger than the given TIMESTAMP
and that is larger than that of the installed package will
be considered by the rebuilt\-binaries logic.
.TP
.BR "\-\-reinstall changed\-use"
This is an alias for \fB\-\-changed\-use\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-reinstall\-atoms " ATOMS
A space separated list of package names or slot atoms. Emerge will treat
matching packages as if they are not installed, and reinstall them if
necessary.
.TP
.BR \-\-root=DIR
Set the \fBROOT\fR environment variable.
.TP
.BR \-\-sysroot=DIR
Set the \fBSYSROOT\fR environment variable.
.TP
.BR \-\-root\-deps[=rdeps]
If no argument is given then build\-time dependencies of packages for
\fBROOT\fR are installed to \fBROOT\fR instead of /.
If the \fBrdeps\fR argument is given then discard all build\-time dependencies
of packages for \fBROOT\fR.
This option is only meaningful when used together with \fBROOT\fR and it should
not be enabled under normal circumstances!

Does not affect EAPIs that support \fBBDEPEND\fR or \fBHDEPEND\fR.
\fBEAPI 7\fR introduces \fBBDEPEND\fR and experimental
\fBEAPI 5-hdepend\fR features \fBHDEPEND\fR as a means to adjust
installation into / and \fBROOT\fR.  Use the \fBSYSROOT\fR environment
variable to control where \fBDEPEND\fR is installed to under
\fBEAPI 7\fR.

When ebuilds with different EAPIs feature in the same emerge run, the
appropriate behaviour for each EAPI is applied independently to each
ebuild.
.TP
.BR "\-\-search\-index < y | n >"
Enable or disable indexed search for search actions. This option is
enabled by default. The search index needs to be regenerated by
\fBegencache\fR(1) after changes are made to a repository (see the
\fB\-\-update\-pkg\-desc\-index\fR action). This setting can be added
to \fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR (see \fBmake.conf\fR(5)) and later
overridden via the command line.
.TP
.BR "\-\-search\-similarity PERCENTAGE"
Set the minimum similarity percentage (a floating-point number between
0 and 100). Search results with similarity percentages lower than this
are discarded (default: \'80\'). This option has no effect unless the
\fB\-\-fuzzy\-search\fR option is enabled.
.TP
.BR "\-\-select [ y | n ]" ", " \-w
Add specified packages to the world set (inverse of
\fB\-\-oneshot\fR). This is useful if you want to
use \fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR to make
\fB\-\-oneshot\fR behavior default.
.TP
.BR "\-\-selective [ y | n ]"
This is identical to the \fB\-\-noreplace\fR option.
Some options, such as \fB\-\-update\fR, imply \fB\-\-selective\fR.
Use \fB\-\-selective=n\fR if you want to forcefully disable
\fB\-\-selective\fR, regardless of options like \fB\-\-changed\-use\fR,
\fB\-\-newuse\fR, \fB\-\-noreplace\fR, or \fB\-\-update\fR.
.TP
.BR \-\-skipfirst
This option is only valid when used with \fB\-\-resume\fR.  It removes the
first package in the resume list. Dependencies are recalculated for
remaining packages and any that have unsatisfied dependencies or are
masked will be automatically dropped. Also see the related
\fB\-\-keep\-going\fR option.
.TP
.BR "\-\-sync\-submodule <glsa|news|profiles>"
Restrict sync to the specified submodule(s). This option may be
specified multiple times, in order to sync multiple submodules.
Currently, this option has no effect for sync protocols other
than rsync.
(--sync action only)
.TP
.BR \-\-tree ", " \-t
Shows the dependency tree for the given target by indenting dependencies.
This is only really useful in combination with \fB\-\-emptytree\fR or
\fB\-\-update\fR and \fB\-\-deep\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-unordered\-display"
By default the displayed merge list is sorted using the
order in which the packages will be merged. When
\fB\-\-tree\fR is used together with this option, this
constraint is removed, hopefully leading to a more
readable dependency tree.
.TP
.BR \-\-update ", " \-u
Updates packages to the best version available, which may
not always be the highest version number due to masking
for testing and development. Package atoms specified on
the command line are greedy, meaning that unspecific
atoms may match multiple versions of slotted packages.
This option also implies the \fB\-\-selective\fR option.
.TP
.BR "\-\-use\-ebuild\-visibility [ y | n ]"
Use unbuilt ebuild metadata for visibility
checks on built packages.
.TP
.BR "\-\-useoldpkg\-atoms " ATOMS
A space separated list of package names or slot atoms. Emerge will prefer
matching binary packages over newer unbuilt packages.
.TP
.BR "\-\-usepkg [ y | n ]" ", " \-k
Tells emerge to use binary packages (from $PKGDIR) if they are available, thus
possibly avoiding some time\-consuming compiles.  This option is useful for CD
installs; you can export PKGDIR=/mnt/cdrom/packages and then use this option to
have emerge "pull" binary packages from the CD in order to satisfy
dependencies.
.TP
.BR "\-\-usepkgonly [ y | n ]" ", " \-K
Tells emerge to only use binary packages (from $PKGDIR).  All the binary
packages must be available at the time of dependency calculation or emerge
will simply abort.  Portage does not use ebuild repositories when calculating
dependency information so all masking information is ignored.
.TP
.BR "\-\-verbose [ y | n ]" ", " \-v
Tell emerge to run in verbose mode.  Currently this flag causes emerge to print
out GNU info errors, if any, and to show the USE flags that will be used for
each package when pretending. The following symbols are affixed to USE flags
in order to indicate their status:

.TS
l l l
___
l l l.
Symbol	Location	Meaning

-	prefix	not enabled (either disabled or removed)
*	suffix	transition to or from the enabled state
%	suffix	newly added or removed
()	circumfix	forced, masked, or removed
{}	circumfix	state is bound to FEATURES settings
.TE
.TP
.BR \-\-verbose\-conflicts
Make slot conflicts more verbose. Note that this may in some cases output
hundreds of packages for slot conflicts.
.TP
.BR "\-\-verbose\-slot\-rebuilds [ y | n ]"
Turns on/off the extra emerge output to list which packages are causing rebuilds.
The default is set to "y" (on).
.TP
.BR "\-\-with\-bdeps < y | n >"
In dependency calculations, pull in build time dependencies
that are not strictly required. This option is automatically enabled for
installation actions, meaning they will be installed, and defaults to
\(aqy\(aq for the \fB\-\-depclean\fR action, meaning they will not be
removed. In order to prevent the \fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR option from being
automatically enabled for installation actions, specify
\fB\-\-with\-bdeps\-auto=n\fR in either the command line or
\fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR.

Since many users of binary packages do not want unnecessary build time
dependencies installed, this option is not automatically enabled for
installation actions when the \fB\-\-usepkg\fR option is enabled. In
order to pull in build time dependencies for binary packages with
\fB\-\-usepkg\fR, \fB\-\-with\-bdeps=y\fR must be specified explicitly.
This also applies to options that enable the \fB\-\-usepkg\fR option
implicitly, such as \fB\-\-getbinpkg\fR.

This setting can be added to
\fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR (see make.conf(5)) and later overridden via the
command line.
.TP
.BR "\-\-with\-bdeps\-auto < y | n >"
This option is used to enable or disable the program logic that causes
\fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR is to be automatically enabled for installation
actions. This option is enabled by default. Use
\fB\-\-with\-bdeps\-auto=n\fR to prevent \fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR from
being automatically enabled for installation actions. This setting can
be added to \fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR (see make.conf(5)) and later
overridden via the command line.

\fBNOTE:\fR The program logic that causes \fB\-\-with\-bdeps\fR to be
automatically enabled for installation actions does not affect removal
actions such as the \fB\-\-depclean\fR action. Therefore, when
\fB\-\-with\-bdeps\-auto=n\fR is specified in \fBEMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS\fR,
it does not affect the default \fB\-\-with\-bdeps=y\fR setting that
applies to the \fB\-\-depclean\fR action. The default
\fB\-\-with\-bdeps=y\fR setting that applies to the \fB\-\-depclean\fR
action can be overridden only by specifying \fB\-\-with\-bdeps=n\fR.
.TP
.BR "\-\-with\-test\-deps [ y | n ]"
For packages matched by arguments, this option will pull in dependencies
that are conditional on the "test" USE flag, even if "test" is not
enabled in \fBFEATURES\fR for the matched packages. (see \fBmake.conf\fR(5)
for more information about \fBFEATURES\fR settings).
.SH "ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS"
.TP
\fBEPREFIX\fR = \fI[path]\fR
Use \fBEPREFIX\fR to specify the target prefix to be used for merging packages
or ebuilds. This variable can be set via the \fB\-\-prefix\fR
option or in \fBmake.conf\fR(5) (the command line overrides other settings).
.br
Defaults to the prefix where portage is currently installed.
.TP
\fBROOT\fR = \fI[path]\fR
Use \fBROOT\fR to specify the target root filesystem to be used for
merging the requested packages or ebuilds and their runtime
dependencies.  This variable can be set via the \fB\-\-root\fR option
or in \fBmake.conf\fR(5) (the command line overrides other settings).
.br
Defaults to /.
.TP
\fBSYSROOT\fR = \fI[path]\fR
Use \fBSYSROOT\fR to specify the target root filesystem to be used for
merging the build dependencies satisfied by \fBDEPEND\fR.  This
variable can be set via the \fB\-\-sysroot\fR option or in
\fBmake.conf\fR(5) (the command line overrides other settings).  The
value must either be / or equal to \fBROOT\fR.  When cross-compiling,
only the latter is valid.
.br
Defaults to /.
.TP
\fBPORTAGE_CONFIGROOT\fR = \fI[path]\fR
Use \fBPORTAGE_CONFIGROOT\fR to specify the location for various portage
configuration files
(see \fBFILES\fR for a detailed list of configuration files).  This variable
can be set via the \fB\-\-config\-root\fR option.  However, it is now
superseded by the \fBSYSROOT\fR variable and can only be given if its
value matches \fBSYSROOT\fR or if \fBROOT=/\fR.
.br
Defaults to /.
.SH "OUTPUT"
When utilizing \fBemerge\fR with the \fB\-\-pretend\fR and \fB\-\-verbose\fR
flags, the output may be a little hard to understand at first.  This section
explains the abbreviations.
.TP
.B [blocks B     ] app\-text/dos2unix ("app\-text/dos2unix" is blocking \
app\-text/hd2u\-0.8.0)
Dos2unix is Blocking hd2u from being emerged.  Blockers are defined when
two packages will clobber each others files, or otherwise cause some form
of breakage in your system.  However, blockers usually do not need to be
simultaneously emerged because they usually provide the same functionality.
.TP
.B [ebuild  N    ] app\-games/qstat\-25c
Qstat is New to your system, and will be emerged for the first time.
.TP
.B [ebuild  NS   ] dev-libs/glib-2.4.7
You already have a version of glib installed, but a 'new' version in
a different SLOT is available.
.TP
.B [ebuild   R   ] sys\-apps/sed\-4.0.5
Sed 4.0.5 has already been emerged, but if you run the command, then
portage will Re\-emerge the specified package (sed in this case).
.TP
.B [ebuild    F  ] media\-video/realplayer\-8\-r6
The realplayer package requires that you Fetch the sources manually.
When you attempt to emerge the package, if the sources are not found,
then portage will halt and you will be provided with instructions on how
to download the required files.
.TP
.B [ebuild    f  ] media\-video/realplayer\-8\-r6
The realplayer package's files are already downloaded.
.TP
.B [ebuild     U ] net\-fs/samba\-2.2.8_pre1 [2.2.7a]
Samba 2.2.7a has already been emerged and can be Updated to version
2.2.8_pre1.
.TP
.B [ebuild     UD] media\-libs/libgd\-1.8.4 [2.0.11]
Libgd 2.0.11 is already emerged, but if you run the command, then
portage will Downgrade to version 1.8.4 for you.
.br
This may occur if a newer version of a package has been masked because it is
broken or it creates a security risk on your system and a fix has not been
released yet.
.br
Another reason this may occur is if a package you are trying to emerge requires
an older version of a package in order to emerge successfully.  In this case,
libgd 2.x is incompatible with libgd 1.x.  This means that packages that were
created with libgd 1.x will not compile with 2.x and must downgrade libgd first
before they can emerge.
.TP
.B [ebuild     U ] sys\-devel/distcc\-2.16 [2.13\-r1] USE="ipv6* \-gtk \-qt%"
Here we see that the make.conf variable \fBUSE\fR affects how this package is
built.  In this example, ipv6 optional support is enabled and both gtk and qt
support are disabled.  The asterisk following ipv6 indicates that ipv6 support
was disabled the last time this package was installed.  The percent sign
following qt indicates that the qt option has been added to the package since
it was last installed.  For information about all \fBUSE\fR symbols, see the
\fB\-\-verbose\fR option documentation above.
.br
\fB*Note:\fR Flags that haven't changed since the last install are only
displayed when you use the \fB\-\-pretend\fR and \fB\-\-verbose\fR options.
Using the \fB\-\-quiet\fR option will prevent all information from being
displayed.
.TP
.B [ebuild  r  U  ] dev\-libs/icu\-50.1.1:0/50.1.1 [50.1\-r2:0/50.1]
Icu 50.1\-r2 has already been emerged and can be Updated to version
50.1.1. The \fBr\fR symbol indicates that a sub\-slot change (from 50.1
to 50.1.1 in this case) will force packages having slot\-operator
dependencies on it to be rebuilt (as libxml2 will be rebuilt in the next
example).
.TP
.B [ebuild  rR    ] dev\-libs/libxml2\-2.9.0\-r1:2  USE="icu"
Libxml2 2.9.0\-r1 has already been emerged, but if you run the command,
then portage will Re\-emerge it in order to satisfy a slot\-operator
dependency which forces it to be rebuilt when the icu sub\-slot changes
(as it changed in the previous example).
.TP
.B [ebuild     U *] sys\-apps/portage\-2.2.0_alpha6 [2.1.9.25]
Portage 2.1.9.25 is installed, but if you run the command, then
portage will upgrade to version 2.2.0_alpha6. In this case,
the \fB*\fR symbol is displayed, in order to indicate that version
2.2.0_alpha6 is masked by missing keyword. This type of masking
display is disabled by the \fB\-\-quiet\fR option if the
\fB\-\-verbose\fR option is not enabled simultaneously.
The following symbols are used to indicate various types
of masking:
.TS
l l
__
c l.
Symbol	Mask Type

#	package.mask
*	missing keyword
~	unstable keyword
.TE

\fBNOTE:\fR The unstable keyword symbol (~) will not be shown in cases
in which the corresponding unstable keywords have been accepted
globally via \fBACCEPT_KEYWORDS\fR.
.TP


.SH "NOTES"
You should almost always precede any package install or update attempt with a
\fB\-\-pretend\fR install or update.  This lets you see how much will be
done, and shows you any blocking packages that you will have to rectify.
This goes doubly so for the \fBsystem\fR and \fBworld\fR sets, which can
update a large number of packages if the ebuild repository has been particularly
active.
.LP
You also want to typically use \fB\-\-update\fR, which ignores packages that
are already fully updated but updates those that are not.
.LP
When you install a package with uninstalled dependencies and do
not explicitly state those dependencies in the list of parameters,
they will not be added to the world file.  If you want them to be
detected for world updates, make sure to explicitly list them as
parameters to \fBemerge\fR.
.LP
\fBUSE variables\fR may be specified on the command line to
override those specified in the default locations, letting you
avoid using some dependencies you may not want to have.  \fBUSE
flags specified on the command line are NOT remembered\fR.  For
example, \fBenv USE="\-X \-gnome" emerge mc\fR will emerge mc with
those USE settings (on Bourne-compatible shells you may omit the \fBenv\fR
part).  If you want those USE settings to be more
permanent, you can put them in /etc/portage/package.use instead.
.LP
If \fBemerge \-\-update @system\fR or \fBemerge \-\-update @world\fR
fails with an error message, it may be that an ebuild uses some
newer feature not present in this version of \fBemerge\fR.  You
can use \fBemerge \-\-update portage\fR to upgrade to the lastest
version, which should support any necessary new features.
.SH "MASKED PACKAGES"
\fINOTE: Please use caution when using development packages.  Problems
and bugs resulting from misusing masked packages drains Gentoo
developer time.  Please be sure you are capable of handling any problems
that may ensue.\fR
.LP
Masks in \fBportage\fR have many uses: they allow a
testing period where the packages can be used in live machines; they
prevent the use of a package when it will fail; and they mask existing
packages that are broken or could pose a security risk.  Read below
to find out how to unmask in various cases.  Also note that if you give
\fBemerge\fR an ebuild, then all forms of masking will be ignored and
\fBemerge\fR will attempt to emerge the package.
.TP
.BR backtracking
When packages are masked for \fBbacktracking\fR, it means that the dependency
resolver has temporarily masked them in order to avoid dependency conflicts
and/or unsatisfied dependencies. This type of mask is typically accompanied
by a message about a missed package update which has been skipped in order to
avoid dependency conflicts and/or unsatisfied dependencies.
.TP
.BR package.mask
The \fBpackage.mask\fR file primarily blocks the use of packages that cause
problems or are known to have issues on different systems.  It resides in
\fI/var/db/repos/gentoo/profiles\fR.
.TP
.BR CHOST
Use the \fBACCEPT_CHOSTS\fR variable in \fBmake.conf\fR(5) to control
\fBCHOST\fR acceptance.
.TP
.BR EAPI
The \fBEAPI\fR variable in an \fBebuild\fR(5) file is used to mask packages
that are not supported by the current version of portage. Packages masked by
\fBEAPI\fR can only be installed after portage has been upgraded.
.TP
.BR KEYWORDS
The \fBKEYWORDS\fR variable in an \fBebuild\fR file is also used for masking
a package still in testing.  There are architecture\-specific keywords for
each package that let \fBportage\fR know which systems are compatible with
the package.  Packages which compile on an architecture, but have not been
proven to be "stable", are masked with a tilde (\fB~\fR) in front of the
architecture name.  \fBemerge\fR examines the \fBACCEPT_KEYWORDS\fR environment
variable to allow or disallow the emerging of a package masked by
\fBKEYWORDS\fR.  To inform \fBemerge\fR that it should build these 'testing'
versions of packages, you should update your
\fI/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords\fR
file to list the packages you want the
\'testing\' version.  See \fBportage\fR(5) for more information.
.TP
.BR LICENSE
The \fBLICENSE\fR variable in an \fBebuild\fR file can be used to mask
packages based on licensing restrictions. \fBemerge\fR examines the
\fBACCEPT_LICENSE\fR environment variable to allow or disallow the emerging
of a package masked by \fBLICENSE\fR. See \fBmake.conf\fR(5) for information
about \fBACCEPT_LICENSE\fR, and see \fBportage\fR(5) for information about
\fI/etc/portage/package.license\fR.
.TP
.BR PROPERTIES
The \fBPROPERTIES\fR variable in an \fBebuild\fR file can be used to mask
packages based on properties restrictions. \fBemerge\fR examines the
\fBACCEPT_PROPERTIES\fR environment variable to allow or disallow the emerging
of a package masked by \fBPROPERTIES\fR. See \fBmake.conf\fR(5) for information
about \fBACCEPT_PROPERTIES\fR, and see \fBportage\fR(5) for information about
\fI/etc/portage/package.properties\fR. Use the \fB\-\-accept\-properties\fR
option to temporarily override \fBACCEPT_PROPERTIES\fR.
.TP
.BR RESTRICT
The \fBRESTRICT\fR variable in an \fBebuild\fR file can be used to mask
packages based on RESTRICT tokens. \fBemerge\fR examines the
\fBACCEPT_RESTRICT\fR environment variable to allow or disallow the emerging
of a package masked by \fBRESTRICT\fR. See \fBmake.conf\fR(5) for information
about \fBACCEPT_RESTRICT\fR, and see \fBportage\fR(5) for information about
\fI/etc/portage/package.accept_restrict\fR. Use the \fB\-\-accept\-restrict\fR
option to temporarily override \fBACCEPT_RESTRICT\fR.
.SH "CONFIGURATION FILES"
Portage has a special feature called "config file protection". The purpose of
this feature is to prevent new package installs from clobbering existing
configuration files. By default, config file protection is turned on for /etc
and the KDE configuration dirs; more may be added in the future.
.LP
When Portage installs a file into a protected directory tree like /etc, any
existing files will not be overwritten. If a file of the same name already
exists, Portage will change the name of the to\-be\-installed file from 'foo'
to \'._cfg0000_foo\'. If \'._cfg0000_foo\' already exists, this name becomes
\'._cfg0001_foo\', etc. In this way, existing files are not overwritten,
allowing the administrator to manually merge the new config files and avoid any
unexpected changes.
.LP
In addition to protecting overwritten files, Portage will not delete any files
from a protected directory when a package is unmerged. While this may be a
little bit untidy, it does prevent potentially valuable config files from being
deleted, which is of paramount importance.
.LP
Protected directories are set using the \fICONFIG_PROTECT\fR variable, normally
defined in make.globals. Directory exceptions to the CONFIG_PROTECTed
directories can be specified using the \fICONFIG_PROTECT_MASK\fR variable.
To find files that need to be updated in /etc, type \fBfind /etc \-name
\[aq]._cfg????_*\[aq]\fR.
.LP
You can disable this feature by setting \fICONFIG_PROTECT="\-*"\fR in
\fBmake.conf\fR(5).
Then, Portage will mercilessly auto\-update your config files. Alternatively,
you can leave Config File Protection on but tell Portage that it can overwrite
files in certain specific /etc subdirectories. For example, if you wanted
Portage to automatically update your rc scripts and your wget configuration,
but didn't want any other changes made without your explicit approval, you'd
add this to \fBmake.conf\fR(5):
.LP
.I CONFIG_PROTECT_MASK="/etc/wget /etc/rc.d"
.LP
.SH "CONFIGURATION FILES UPDATE TOOLS"
Tools such as dispatch\-conf, cfg\-update, and etc\-update are also available
to aid in the merging of these files. They provide interactive merging and can
auto\-merge trivial changes.
.SH "REPORTING BUGS"
Please report any bugs you encounter through our website:
.LP
\fBhttps://bugs.gentoo.org/\fR
.LP
Please include the output of \fBemerge \-\-info\fR when you submit your
bug report.
.SH "AUTHORS"
.nf
Daniel Robbins <drobbins@gentoo.org>
Geert Bevin <gbevin@gentoo.org>
Achim Gottinger <achim@gentoo.org>
Nicholas Jones <carpaski@gentoo.org>
Phil Bordelon <phil@thenexusproject.org>
Mike Frysinger <vapier@gentoo.org>
Marius Mauch <genone@gentoo.org>
Jason Stubbs <jstubbs@gentoo.org>
Brian Harring <ferringb@gmail.com>
Zac Medico <zmedico@gentoo.org>
Arfrever Frehtes Taifersar Arahesis <arfrever@apache.org>
.fi
.SH "FILES"
Here is a common list of files you will probably be interested in.  For a
complete listing, please refer to the \fBportage\fR(5) man page.
.TP
.B /usr/share/portage/config/sets/
Contains the default set configuration.
.TP
.B /var/lib/portage/world
Contains a list of all user\-specified packages.  You can safely edit
this file, adding packages that you want to be considered in \fBworld\fR
set updates and removing those that you do not want to be considered.
.TP
.B /var/lib/portage/world_sets
This is like the world file but instead of package atoms it contains
packages sets which always begin with the \fB@\fR character. Use
\fB/etc/portage/sets/\fR to define user package sets.
.TP
.B /etc/portage/make.conf
Contains variables for the build process, overriding those in
\fBmake.globals\fR.
.TP
.B /etc/portage/color.map
Contains variables customizing colors.
.TP
.B /etc/portage/sets/
Contains user package set definitions (see \fBportage\fR(5)).
.TP
.B /etc/dispatch\-conf.conf
Contains settings to handle automatic updates/backups of configuration
files.
.TP
.B /etc/portage/make.profile/make.defaults
Contains profile\-specific variables for the build process.  \fBDo not
edit this file\fR.
.TP
.B /var/db/repos/gentoo/profiles/use.desc
Contains the master list of USE flags with descriptions of their
functions.  \fBDo not edit this file\fR.
.TP
.B /etc/portage/make.profile/virtuals
Contains a list of default packages used to resolve virtual dependencies.
\fBDo not edit this file\fR.
.TP
.B /etc/portage/make.profile/packages
Contains a list of packages used for the base system.  The \fBsystem\fR
and \fBworld\fR sets consult this file.  \fBDo not edit this file\fR.
.TP
.B /usr/share/portage/config/make.globals
Contains the default variables for the build process.  \fBDo not edit
this file\fR.
.TP
.B /var/log/emerge.log
Contains a log of all emerge output. This file is always appended to, so if you
want to clean it, you need to do so manually.
.TP
.B /var/log/emerge-fetch.log
Contains a log of all the fetches in the previous emerge invocation.
.TP
.B
/var/log/portage/elog/summary.log
Contains the emerge summaries. Installs \fI/etc/logrotate/elog-save-summary\fR.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.BR "emerge \-\-help",
.BR quickpkg (1),
.BR ebuild (1),
.BR ebuild (5),
.BR make.conf (5),
.BR color.map (5),
.BR portage (5)
.LP
A number of helper applications reside in \fI/usr/lib/portage/bin\fR.
.LP
The \fBapp\-portage/gentoolkit\fR package contains useful scripts such as
\fBequery\fR (a package query tool).